Traumatic Childhood Experiences Linked to Adult Addictions, Mental Illness and Crime

Written by Melanie G. Snyder on Monday - June 30, 2014.

Traumatic Childhood Experiences Linked to Adult Addictions, Mental Illness and Crime

The subject of childhood trauma (often measured as "Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)") and links to substance abuse, mental illness and crime has been getting a lot of attention in the professional criminal justice, mental health and addictions literature over the past few years. In this series of articles, we'll explain ACEs, look at definitions of "trauma", examine some of the relevant research, and what corrections, mental health and addictions professionals need to know.


Adverse Childhood Experiences are when children experience emotional, physical or sexual abuse, emotional or physical neglect, loss of a parent due to separation, divorce, incarceration, abandonment or death; substance abuse and addiction within the family/household, family dysfunction; depression, mental illness or suicide within the family or household, incarceration of any family/household member, or witnessing violence against their mother or stepmother. 

Faith leaders grapple with big questions about crime, restorative justice and the role of congregations

Written by Melanie G. Snyder on Friday - June 27, 2014.

Faith leaders grapple with big questions about crime, restorative justice and the role of congregations

How do crime and the criminal justice system impact victims, offenders, their families and the whole community?

How do shame and stigma prevent us from talking about and addressing the resulting harms?

Are we afraid of those in prison or who have been in prison? What are we afraid of and why?

How do we, as a community, move beyond shame and fear to create a culture of safety and support, and to offer restoration and healing to all those who need it?

These were a few of the challenging questions a group of faith leaders from around Lancaster County grappled with at a recent Healing Communities training in Lancaster . . . 

An accomplishment fourteen years in the making

Written by Melanie G. Snyder on Wednesday - June 25, 2014.

An accomplishment fourteen years in the making

Two and a half weeks shy of his 52nd birthday, Orrin Johnson achieved something that was 14 years in the making. He received his GED diploma in a special ceremony at McCaskey East High School, wearing full cap and gown regalia.

"I started working toward my GED back in 2000," Johnson explains. During some difficult years when he was experiencing homelessness, he took GED prep classes at Water Street Rescue Mission and at Bethesda Mission in Harrisburg. Johnson had also spent some time incarcerated at Lancaster County Prison and took GED classes there as well. Over the years, he tried taking the GED tests, sometimes passing, sometimes not. He passed three of them in the mid-2000's, and had two left to go. Then, another incarceration and struggles with addiction set him back . . .

GED opens doors for proud graduate

Written by Melanie G. Snyder on Thursday - June 19, 2014.

GED opens doors for proud graduate

On Thursday evening, June 12, Zena Gunsallus did something that, 10 years ago, she didn't know if she'd ever be able to do. She walked across the stage at McCaskey East High School wearing cap and gown to accept her GED diploma. Five days later, on Tuesday, June 17, she had another graduation: from Lancaster County Drug Court.

"I dropped out of school when I was 17 in my senior year of high school because I was pregnant," Gunsallus explains. "I didn't have a great life." She struggled with addiction, and wound up in and out of Lancaster County Prison. She spent four years trying to complete Drug Court.

"I made plenty of mistakes," she admits. "Finally, I realized I needed to change my life," she says. 

"I had always known I wanted to go to beauty school, but just never had the motivation." She knew that to get into beauty school, she'd have to have her GED. She started taking GED classes offered by IU13 at Lancaster County Prison through a US Department of Education grant program called PRSCEO - Promoting Reentry Success through Continuity of Educational Opportunities. The PRSCEO program was initiated at the federal level because "a growing body of evidence shows that providing offenders with education and training increases their employment opportunities, addresses their cognitive deficits, and helps reduce their likelihood of recidivating."*

Lancaster County is one of only three sites in the nation that has received a grant from the US Department of Education to implement this model. Lancaster County's IU13 Adult Education and the Lancaster County Reentry Management Organization (RMO) partnered to submit the grant application and have been working closely together since July 1, 2013 to implement the program here. The program includes GED Preparation classes and Adult Basic Education classes at both Lancaster County Prison and PA CareerLink of Lancaster County. Participants also receive assistance with career and education planning and have the opportunity to participate in supportive reentry services through the RMO as well as reentry employment services like the Ready2Work program and occupational skills trainings at the CareerLink. Trish Link, Assistant Adult Education Director for IU-13, manages the project. 

The GED classes for women at LCP are taught by IU13 instructor Mary Edith Leichliter.

"If it wasn't for Mary Edith at the prison, I would not have pursued this at that time," Gunsallus says.

Several weeks into her GED classes at the prison . . .